Football: Inflated Urethane Bladder In A Leather Case


“More probable than not [New England cheated]”:


That’s how the NFL Rules describe a football.  The bladder contains air, which the rules state must be between prescribed pounds-per-square-inch limits.  Those are the rules.

The NFL reportedly found that the New England Patriots did not play with properly-inflated footballs during their blowout 45-7 win over Indianapolis last weekend (aka “Deflategate”).  In the second quarter, Indianapolis linebacker D’Qwell Jackson intercepted a Tom Brady pass–and apparently thought the ball felt funny.

He gave the ball to an Indy equipment guy, who told Indy Coach Pagano, who told Indy’s General Manager, who told an NFL official, who told the on-field officials, who then inspected New England’s footballs at halftime.  End of story–until the NFL penalizes New England somehow (probably a monetary fine and perhaps the loss of a draft choice if the League considers the alleged cheating egregious).

To some, the alleged cheating’s effect on the game’s outcome is a non-starter .  New England blew out the Colts, so what could a couple of pounds of air pressure mean in a one-sided game?

To others, the story is all about the air pressure.  They say that football is a game of momentum that can break the other team’s will to win.  If you do that, you steamroll the opponent.  If New England cheated (which apparently they did), and that cheating resulted in the proverbial snowball rolling downhill, a couple of pounds of air pressure meant virtually everything.

The officials rectified the problem at halftime, when the score was 17-7 in favor of New England, who then scored 21 unanswered points in the 3rd quarter with the properly-inflated balls.

In my mind, that makes the issue a non-starter as to the ultimate outcome of the game.  But rules are rules, and a penalty appears warranted at some point.

I can’t wait to see what New England tries next …


Football: Dez Bryant And Completed Forward Pass

Several weeks ago, I analyzed completed forward passes in both college and professional football.  You can read that post here.

Earlier today, the Green Bay-Dallas game involved this issue late in a close game.

The issue involved a 4th down pass to Dallas’s Dez Bryant.  Here is the video:

The official initially called the play a completed forward pass, which would have given Dallas a first down on the Green Bay 1 with a chance to take the lead.  Following an official review, the call was overturned, giving Green Bay the ball.  Green Bay then ran out the clock.

So how do the rules apply here?  NFL Rule 8, Section 1, Article 3 states , in part:

A forward pass is complete … if a player … maintains control of the ball long enough … to enable him to perform any act common to the game (i.e., maintaining control long enough to pitch it, pass it, advance with it, or avoid or ward off an opponent, etc.).

Bryant appears to possess the ball long enough to enable him to perform any act common to the game.  In fact, the example above lists advancing with the ball as one act, which Bryant arguably did by reaching the ball forward.

However, Article 3 also contains “Item 1”, which states:

If a player goes to the ground in the act of catching a pass (with or without contact by an opponent), he must maintain control of the ball throughout the process of contacting the ground, whether in the field of play or the end zone. If he loses control of the ball, and the ball touches the ground before he regains control, the pass is incomplete. If he regains control prior to the ball touching the ground, the pass is complete.

Green Bay Fan would argue that Item 1 applies here; that is, Bryant did not maintain control of the ball throughout the process of contacting the ground. Green Bay Fan likely has a strong argument here in favor of an incomplete pass.  However ….

The standard for overturning a call on the field is stated in NFL Rule 15, Section 9, Article 3, which explains that the Referee only can reverse a call on the field with indisputable visual evidence.  Did indisputable evidence exist?  Did the ball without a doubt hit the ground (and not part of Bryant’s arm)?  Based on the visual evidence I saw, No and No.  The standard is indisputable visual evidence.

But I did not see the Referee’s visual evidence (and I’m a Dallas fan).  Good luck the rest of the way, Green Bay.

Football: Backward Pass (aka Lateral)

A reader (DC) recently suggested that The DA Blog address the topic of laterals, more accurately called “backward passes”.  Specifically, DC inquired about the Oakland Raiders stunning win over Kansas City, during which an Oakland defender batted down a pass, which officials ruled a backward pass, causing Kansas City not only to lose that down but also nine yards.

This result indicates that some passes are not incomplete and the play dead when the ball touches the ground with no loss of yardage (as in a garden-variety incomplete forward pass); a backward pass creates a “live ball” situation wherein the play actually continues.

The most famous example of disputed backward passes occurred in 1982 during “The Play”, where Stanford’s John Elway engineered what appeared to be the game-winning drive to put Stanford ahead of Cal in the closing seconds of the game–right before this happened:

A couple of those backward passes were arguably illegal forward passes.  Can you spot them and, more importantly, what do the rules say about backward passes?

The rules distinguish between forward passes and backward passes, both of which are legal. I shall cite the basic rules but allow you to apply them to specific situations–as they are quite varied and often controversial.  Frankly, the rules regarding backward passes are quite simple yet leave to the officials’ judgment what constitutes “forward” and “backward” passes.

NCAA Football 2013 And 2014 Rules And Interpretations Rule 7, Section 2, Article 1 (Page 77/216) states:

A ball carrier may hand or pass the ball backward at any time, except to throw the ball intentionally out of bounds to conserve time.

Section 2 discusses the nuances of backward passes, but the general rule is left fairly simply: A team may hand or pass the ball backward (generally) at any time innumerable times.

Section 3 (Page 78/216 and following) discusses the forward pass. Generally, a team may pass the ball forward once during a play.  Article 1 of this Section states:

Team A may make one forward pass during each scrimmage down before team possession changes, provided the pass is thrown from a point in or behind the neutral zone.

Section 3 discusses the nuances of the forward pass in exhausting detail.

National Football League Rule 8 also treats forward and backward passes and in only twelve pages.  Again, the basic rules are quite simple, although specific issues occur throughout those pages.

These rule links should assist you to break down issues related to forward and backward passes.

Here’s another play where the announcers are pretty excited: